The Influences of Technical Support, Self Efficacy and Instructional Design on the Usage and Acceptance of LMS: A Comprehensive Review
Innovation, globalization and the rapid expansion of technologies are the current trend now, which lead to the use of latest technologies in several different sectors, including education sector without exception. Learning management system (LMS) that is used for delivering education has become one of the most important innovative tools that is widely used and implemented by educational institutes and universities all over the world. Therefore, it is clear that LMS provides its users with huge benefits. Although LMS has been successful in developed countries and its huge benefits have been gained, the implementation of LMS in developing countries has failed either partly or fully, and its utilization is not complete and considered below the satisfactory level. For an example, in Saudi Arabia, which is considered as one of the developing countries, LMS has been implemented by universities for many years, however its utilization is still under the satisfactory level among both the academic staffs and the students. Organizational, technological and self factors, such as the technical support, self efficacy and instructional design of LMS are believed to be the barriers in Saudi Arabia that may have prevented or decreased the utilization of LMS. Therefore, this paper intends to review the literatures that are related to all the studies that used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) recently to investigate empirically the influence of factors, majorly the technical support, self efficacy and instructional design, along with other factors that may influence the usage and acceptance of LMS. By reviewing the literatures, it is found herein that enjoyment and self efficacy factors within the context of LMS are mostly examined empirically by using TAM, while technical support, self efficacy and instructional design of LMS have not been empirically and simultaneously examined by using TAM at the global level.