Three-Dimensional Interpretation of Sculptural Heritage with Digital and Tangible 3D Printed Replicas



Spatial interpretation features as a skill to acquire in the educational curricula. The visualization and interpretation of three-dimensional objects in tactile devices and the possibility of digital manufacturing with 3D printers, offers an opportunity to include replicas of sculptures in teaching and, thus, facilitate the 3D interpretation of the sculptural heritage. In this research, an open access 3D educational resource is created for teaching in the aim of Art and drawing subjects. In Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, fifteen students of High School, worked in a traditional 2D environment and in a 3D environment with sculptural heritage replicas in digital and tangible versions. The three-dimensional interpretation of the sculptures is evaluated with a 3D viewing test created for this experiment, to verify whether the material used does indeed facilitate the 3D interpretation. The results show a greater difference using 3D representations compared with the 2D versions in the three ambits analysed. In modularity, the percentage of correct answers in the 3D viewing test are 84% with 3D technologies, versus 40% with 2D representations, in volumetry, 90,7% versus 72%, but in orthogonal views is where the biggest difference is with a 76,7% of correct answers in the 3D viewing test using 3D technologies versus 0% using 2D versions.