Augmented Reality to Teach Human Heart Anatomy and Blood Flow
This research aimed to develop the augmented reality (AR) in teaching human heart anatomy and blood flow has been designed and developed an AR to study the anatomy of the heart. The AR was evaluated by five experts, who analysed its content consistency by using the Index of Item Objective Congruence (IOC). The content was rated at 0.8. Simultaneously, via Diffusion of Innovation (DOI), the arithmetic mean was determined to be 4.04 with the standard deviation of 0.35; indicating that the AR can be used for publicizing the innovation at a high level. Subsequently, diffusion of the AR teaching tool was tested by sample group of thirty students. These subjects were evaluated pre-test and post-test by the five experts via the content validity index (CVI), with a score of 0.83. Furthermore, when the learning results of the sample groups was evaluated after the training, it showed that the learning result received higher ratings when compared with the ratings prior to using AR tool. The before and after AR learning results were for statistical significance at p value < 0.001 with the use of a T-Test. Then, the effectiveness of the tool was evaluated by users focusing on the acceptance of the AR for teaching the anatomy of the heart; the evaluation of which was based on the theory of Unified Theory Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) in which the results of the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation were 4.38 and 0.49, respectively. It showed that the users generally accepted the AR for teaching about the heart at a high level. Moreover, when there was a comparison of the learning results of the thirty students who learned about the heart from using hardcopy media, pictures, and videos, and the thirty students using the AR received better scores. The learning results of the two sample groups, tested by the statistical test called T-Test, were statistical significant at p value < 0.001. Hence, it could be concluded that, the AR for teaching heart function can promote more effective learning proficiency while being unanimously accepted by the users.