Analysis of the Obstacles to the Freedom and Independence of the Media in the World and Turkey



Media freedom and independence are the pillars of a given democratic society. Since the media makes up the bridge between the political authority and the public opinion, its independence is crucial for the survival of democracy. However, the history of the media has always been paved with obstacles of different kinds. This paper examines the obstacles to the freedom and independence of the media in the world in general and Turkey in particular. The critical political economy of the media was used as the theoretical framework for the study and, as for the method, a qualitative analysis of secondary data was performed. The existing literature showed that media concentration ownership, commercial stakes, and political interference make up the main obstacles to media freedom and independence in the world. Also, the literature  revealed that political interference, economic stakes, and the legal framework in which the media operate consist of the main obstacle to media freedom and independence in Turkey. It was revealed that even in countries where freedom of expression is guaranteed by the Constitution, the media still struggle to maintain a completely independent editorial policy. he negative world trends in media freedom and independence consequently imply a negative trend in democracy in the world. The rise of electronic journalism contributed significantly to the freedom and independence of the media. However, political power and digital capital control the media content, which often leads to censorship.