Validity and Reliability Studies of the Uskudar Benevolence and Malevolence Scale (USBEMA) in the Digital Age



This study aimed to study the validity and reliability of the Uskudar Benevolence and Malevolency Scale (USBEMA). The sample consists of 1028 people from all over Turkey. The analysis made revealed that the scale consists of two factors. The first factor “Purpose Oriented” explains 35.2% of the variance and the second factor “Process Oriented” 7.9% of the variance. The two-factor structure, consisting of a total of 35 items in total, explained 50,6% of the total variance. In addition, two factors confirmed the USBEMA in the confirmatory factor analysis (Chi-square/degrees of freedom: 4.09; RMSEA: 0.079; NFI: 0.80; NNFI: 0.81; CFI: 0.84; GFI: 0.86; AGFI: 0.83). The internal consistency coefficient (α) of the scale was found to be ,92. As a result of the study, it was understood that the scale is valid and reliable. Thus, A valid and reliable USBEMA Scale emerged, which was rated as “I do not accept”, “I accept”, “I accept but I cannot do it, I'll feel regret”, and “I believe and implement with a sense of responsibility by planning” and “I always believe and implement with love” that psychometrically measures the benevolence/malevolence attitudes and perceptions of individuals.