Psychometric Properties of Smartphone Scales: Perspectives of University Students in the Kingdom of Bahrain
Many studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of using smartphones in the teaching and learning process. The purpose of the present study was to identify the factor structure and the psychometric properties of a smartphone questionnaire. The questionnaire was translated into Arabic and administered to 203 students at a university in Bahrain. Both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to explore the reliability and factorial validity of the Arabic version of the questionnaire. The results showed that the four-factor structure is appropriate. The findings obtained in this study indicate that the translated version of the smartphone questionnaire can be effectively used in Arabic-speaking countries.