Evaluation of Studies Based on the ICAP Framework in Learning Environments



ICAP is a framework that classifies learning processes based on studentsí explicit behaviors. The framework is developed for testing the hypothesis that interactive exercises are better than constructive exercises, and active exercises are better than the passive exercises for higher cognitive engagement and better learning outcomes. The ICAP Framework is intended to assist researchers, instruction designers and instructors in determining the activities appropriate for the aimed research and teaching. This study aims to evaluate articles based on or supported by the ICAP Framework from various aspects. In the study, employing the descriptive survey method, data collection was conducted through document analysis, while content analysis was utilized to analyze the data. The 71 articles reviewed within the study's scope were examined through the "data collection form" developed by the authors. In this context, the articles' general and methodological characteristics and themes and the findings related to ICAP contexts are presented. As a result of the research, no study regarding the ICAP Framework was conducted in Turkey. It was revealed that most of the studies, which have increased in number since 2017 in various countries, utilize the ICAP framework at the analytical level or create models-modules and develop tools-scales based on the ICAP Framework. Additionally, it was observed that mostly undergraduate and K12 students were studied in face-to-face education, with social sciences as the leading disciplinary field and teaching-learning approaches and design-development-evaluation as the most frequently studied topics, while in studies in which mixed and qualitative methods were the leading methods, exploratory and experimental approaches were more preferred. In line with these results, recommendations are presented to contribute to the field.