THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER IMMEDIACY BEHAVIORS AND LEARNERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF SOCIAL PRESENCE AND SATISFACTION IN OPEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION: THE CASE OF ANADOLU UNIVERSITY OPEN EDUCATION FACULTY
There are a significant number of studies in the literature stressing the important role of teacher immediacy behaviors on learners’ perceptions of social presence and satisfaction in open and distance learning environments. Yet, those studies were conducted in different open and distance education institutions than the current example of which unique characteristics and applications are commonly recognized in the field. Unlike others, the current study examined the effects of both verbal and nonverbal instructor immediacy behaviors on learners’ perceptions of social presence and satisfaction in face-to-face academic tutoring services provided in open and distance learning environments. Results indicated a moderate and positive relationship between the control variable and outcome variables.